Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant, entrepreneur, blogger and researcher on online business promotion.

The Fundamentals of Mineral Base Oil Refining

He is working as a consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Hydro Extractor:. Hydro-Extractors are also called Centrifuges. Centrifuges are used for water extraction dewatering, pre-drying of textile materials.

Values of approx. Most centrifuges have electric drives for speeds of approx. For safety reasons, an interlocking lid is essential on a centrifuge so that the motor cannot be started until the lid is locked, nor the lid raised until the basket is stationary again after the machine has been stopped.

When used for dewatering loose stock, the cake of loose fibers is transferred from the dyeing machine to the centrifuge and hydro-extracted before it is run into the fiber opener as a preliminary stage of drying in a perforated drum drier. If an immersion centrifuge is used, impregnation of the loose fibers with a spinning lubricant is also possible. In this case, the material is loaded into the centrifuge, liquor is then pumped in until it covers the materialand the goods are finally hydro-extracted.

The advantage of such a procedure lies in the fact that a separate treatment of the textile material in an impregnation vat and the reloading of wet goods into the centrifuge are eliminated.

Impregnation of textile material in the impregnation basket of a centrifuge is generally quicker and more effective for all processes than in a vat.

The centrifugal force which drives the liquor through the goods during centrifuging accelerates penetration. It is possible to carry out several processes one after the other in an immersion centrifuge. In this case, however, separate drain channels and liquor tanks must be provided. The basket of an immersion centrifuge has an outer casing without perforations which surrounds the cylindrical basket of a normal centrifuge extended conically at the top.

By this means, it is possible to fill it with liquor to the level of the upper rim. Only when the basket is set in motion does the liquor, which is driven outwards by centrifugal force, rise up the basket casing and run over the upper rim. Loose fiber material loose stock can also be centrifuged continuously.

For the dewatering of yarn packages, other possible options besides the asymmetrical dewatering of columns of yarn packages in suitably shaped compartments of the centrifuge include symmetrical dewatering by the rotation of individual packages or columns of yarn packages which involves less risk of package deformation. Automatic control of the feeding without tension, no edge mark, final folding without stretching.Demand for extracted cannabis products is quickly gaining traction.

When executed properly, cannabis extracts can be also used to produce other high-quality products such as topicals, transdermal patches, capsules and other concentrates. Yet, cannabis extraction can be a complex process-one that needs careful attention and a skilled workforce to be completed safely and efficiently. The second installment of this series explores hydrocarbon extraction, butane in particular, including its functionality, laboratory requirements and what features should be considered during extractor selection.

Before diving in, a quick review of relevant physical properties of n-butane can be helpful. It has a low boiling point of This process leaves behind the temperature-sensitive terpenes. Many extraction technicians prefer to blend their butane with propane to create a gas mixture that will strip additional terpenes and purge more efficiently than butane alone. The boiling point of propane is So, what features of n-butane C4H10 make it an effective solvent in cannabis extraction? Hydrocarbons are arguably the most efficient solvent for cannabis extraction.

Of the two standard hydrocarbons used for extraction butane and propanebutane is a low-pressure system where extractions occur between 0 psi and 30 psi pounds per square inch. One advantage of hydrocarbon extraction is the sheer number of products you can create from a single standard extraction without further refinement.

lubricant production processes: solvent extraction x hydro

Currently, the preferred method is to separate the crystalline high-cannabinoid extract HCE from the aqueous, high-terpene extract HTE. Full-spectrum extracts are very popular. A few shortcomings of butane exist, the primary one being its flammability and the regulatory compliance costs surrounding any hydrocarbon extraction.

Hydrocarbons as extraction solvents are currently outlawed in Canada and some U. The second shortcoming is the lack of automated options. Unlike CO2 and the new ethanol systems, hydrocarbon extraction is still a very hands-on process, which can make extraction-outcome predictability difficult. The hands-on nature of hydrocarbon systems puts added reliance on operator skill to achieve product consistency.

Only a few automated extraction machines are currently available to the cannabis industry; however, the price tag and throughput can be a tough pill to swallow for some. Automated hydrocarbon extraction systems will improve in quality and decrease in price as their safety features and internal monitoring systems become more reliable. Always store plant material in a cool, dark place, and in vacuum-sealed or nitrogen-filled bags.

These precautions limit exposure to ultraviolet rays, heat and oxygen, which are the three primary factors contributing to cannabinoid degradation.The chemical compositions were investigated for pine essential oils obtained through a solvent-free microwave assistance extraction system ME and a conventional hydrodistillation system HD.

The essential oils of P. The main components of the pine essential oils were D-limonene Moreover, the ME was able to produce more diterpene alcohols and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons while the HD showed higher potential for the diterpene hydrocarbons. According to the heat-map correlation, P. Scientific and ethno-botanic research on plants are of growing interest because of their use and identification.

They are important antioxidants that assist in food processing and storage due to their shelf life and properties e.

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In a few years, new, cleaner, and green tendency techniques e. The objective of this study is to investigate and to compare the essential oils of the pine species e. Four different fresh pine sawdust were used in this study. The form of sawdust was approximately 30 x 2. The pine species were identified at the Dept. Using g of the pine sawdust, the essential oils were collected at 4 h by HD, 45 min by the ME, and then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate in a vial until further analysis.

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The HD process was distilled mL volume of water. At W microwave irradiation power of the ME system, the samples were heated using a fixed power. Each extraction process was repeated three times to find a correct standard deviation. The carrier gas was helium and was delivered at a 1.

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The quantitative area-percent measurements were based on peak areas from the GC-MS data. Isolation apparatus of the essential oils; A microwave assistance extraction system, B conventional hydro-distillation system, 1 refrigerant system, 2 collected oil fraction, 3 microwave oven. The statistical analysis was calculated by Excel program.

The essential oils of the pine species were obtained through a solvent-free microwave assistance extraction system ME and a conventional hydro-distillation system HD. The groups were categorized into diterpene hydrocarbons, diterpene alcohols, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and sesquiterpene alcohols.

These aromatic diterpenes can be used for anti-inflammation, anti-carcinogenesis, and neuroprotection Kiyama The terpene categories and their amounts in various pine sawdust are shown in Table 2. Additionally, the essential oil compositions, retention time, and retention index of the various pine species sawdust are showcased in Table 1.

A total of 34 various essential oil components were determined for all pine species. As can be seen in Table 1, total numbers of determined essential oil compounds were in the range of 13 to 21 chemical compounds according to each pine species. It was clear that the essential oil compounds number by the ME were a higher amount of than the HD. The percent amount of the main component was affected by the extraction procedures and pine species.

Percent compositions of the main component of the essential oils in the sawdust of the pine species are shown in Figs. Table 1. Table 2. The diterpene hydrocarbons, diterpene alcohols, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene alcohols, total diterpenes, total sesquiterpenes, and total oxygenated terpenes of the essential oils in the pine species are shown in Table 2, Fig. As can be seen from Fig. Percent amount of the diterpene hydrocarbons, diterpene alcohols, and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the pine species.

lubricant production processes: solvent extraction x hydro

More diterpene alcohol and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were obtained by the free solvent microwave assistance extraction system.The solvents strip the plant of its essential oils, including THC, CBD, terpenes, vitamins, antioxidants and other good things, creating a highly potent oil.

With an average extraction cycle of less than 1 hour, BHO is the fastest commercial extraction method. Compare that to an average 8 — 10 hour comparable CO2 supercritical extraction cycle. In the fast-paced and lucrative extraction industry, time is money. The longer it takes to produce extract, the less profitable your extraction business will be. When it comes to safety, a professional closed loop BHO extraction system in a controlled lab environment is extremely safe.

This is because if there is no spark, there is no risk of combustion. As to consumer safety, in a certified closed loop BHO extraction system, virtually all butane and propane solvents are reclaimed during the process and not released into the atmosphere.

Furthermore, what may be left over is cooked off during post processing. And the resulting cannabis extract is delicious. Food and Drug Administration approved extraction method.

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Hexane solvent, for example, is widely used in the extraction of vegetable oil from seeds such as soybeans, corn, canola, safflower, sunflower, cotton, and flax. In addition, hexane solvent can be used to extract fish protein, shea butter, and a variety of flavor extracts. Products you use and consume every day. Safe in the Workplace When it comes to safety, a professional closed loop BHO extraction system in a controlled lab environment is extremely safe.

So what happens when a highly pressurized CO2 tank fails? Safe for Consumers As to consumer safety, in a certified closed loop BHO extraction system, virtually all butane and propane solvents are reclaimed during the process and not released into the atmosphere. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email.

Related Posts.With the growing demand for metals of ever higher purity, the increasing use of unusual metals, and the necessity for treating ores of lower grade and greater complexity, solvent extraction has joined the ranks of other accepted recovery methods and has added certain unique characteristics of its own in the constant struggle to lower costs.

Analytical chemists have been using solvent extraction in the laboratory for many years for extraction of molecular species from aqueous solutions by organic solvents. However, the requirements and objectives of an analytical procedure are quite different from those of a profit producing mill flowsheet. The chemical process industries have made use of solvent extraction as a unit operation for over thirty years.

Oil refineries have made applications of liquid-liquid extraction. Technical literature is full of references covering the theory and application of this mass transfer principle to the chemical industries. The adaptation of the solvent extraction process to the metallurgical industry has been extremely slow up until recent years.

lubricant production processes: solvent extraction x hydro

As an operating procedure this process was initiated during the war years as part of the atomic energy effort. A large part of the uranium for use in nuclear reactors was recovered from ores by procedures using solvent extraction for purification of solutions.

In addition, some of the man-made elements such as plutonium, americium and curium were purified in nuclear processing systems by the use of solvent extraction techniques.

These operations were not concerned with making a profit but they did serve to stimulate research and development work which ultimately served as the basis of profitable recovery methods. Solvent extraction is now used in commercial plants for the recovery of uranium, vanadium, tungsten, thorium, and boron. It can be used to extract copper from ammonia solutions and iron from acids.

Extraction Explained: Cannabis Derived Terpenes - How to Extract and Isolate These Compounds

In principle almost any known metal and most of the non-metals can be separated and purified by a solvent extraction method. The question is not how to do it technically but how to devise a flowsheet which will result in a profitable operation. In order to do this it is necessary to understand clearly the nature of this new kind of process, its virtues and its limitations. This five-stage commercial solvent extraction system eliminates all need for acid-proof pumps and piping.

The mixing and settling and counter-current flows of both the aqueous and organic phases take place in the self-contained solvent extraction system. The primary use of solvent extraction in hydrometallurgy is to purify and concentrate mineral values from solutions economically. Obviously, therefore, it cannot make a profitable recovery from an ore where the cost of initially placing the desired element or elements into solution is prohibitive.

The solvent extraction method is merely a new tool available to the extractive metallurgist. There are probably many circumstances in which it need not even be considered. However, because it is a relatively new method, it is one which should be explored thoroughly whenever there is a need for purification and concentration from solution. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the principles and practices of solvent extraction in hydrometallurgy from a rather particular point of view.

This point of view is not that of the mill operator, but rather those of the technical staff who are faced with an extractive metallurgy problem, and who are not completely familiar with the research and development effort which provides the practical and theoretical foundation for a good flowsheet and successful plant design. The underlying theory and basic laboratory techniques are discussed and methods of scale up to larger sizes are presented.

Although solvent extraction utilizes the same basic theory whether it is used in a metal recovery plant or any other chemical process there are certain restrictions in hydrometallurgy that simplify the solvent extraction calculations. These simplifications have made it easier for the hydrometallurgist to guide his experimental work and to calculate from his laboratory results the proper scale up factors for large plant design.

For example, many of the complications of solvent extraction applications in the chemical industry arise from the fact that the solvent is soluble to some extent in the solution from which the extraction is being made.

For most conceivable hydrometallurgical applications the solution from which the extraction is being made is water and the solvents selected must be insoluble and immiscible with aqueous solutions to avoid prohibitive solvent loss. Therefore, marked simplification can be made in the chemical engineering theory.

Fundamentally, solvent extraction S-X starts with a mass transfer operation in which a constituent of one solution is transferred to another solution through an interface between the two. Since we are concerned here only with application to extractive metallurgy, the first solution is always a water solution of the desired element and the second is the organic solvent.

Solvent Extraction Process SX: Hydrometallurgical Extraction of Copper

This first step in the process is called the extraction. It is governed by the laws of chemistry applicable to the reactions involved and by the practical aspects of mixing two immiscible liquids in such a way as to make the transfer of the desired constituent feasible from both the technical and economic standpoints.

The second major part of the S-X operation is the recovery of the desired material from the organic solvent in a purified and concentrated form in such a way that the organic solvent can be recycled to the extraction operation.In recent years, almost all extraction processes in the perfume, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food ingredients, nutraceuticals, biofuel and fine chemical industries rely massively on solvents, the majority of which have petroleum origins.

The intricate processing steps involved in the industrial extraction cycle makes it increasingly difficult to predict the overall environmental impact; despite the tremendous energy consumption and the substantial usage of solvents, often the yields are indicated in decimals.

The ideal alternative solvents suitable for green extraction should have high solvency, high flash points with low toxicity and low environmental impacts, be easily biodegradable, obtained from renewable non-petrochemical resources at a reasonable price and should be easy to recycle without any deleterious effect to the environment.

Finding the perfect solvent that meets all the aforementioned requirements is a challenging task, thus the decision for the optimum solvent will always be a compromise depending on the process, the plant and the target molecules.

The objective of this comprehensive review is to furnish a vivid picture of current knowledge on alternative, green solvents used in laboratories and industries alike for the extraction of natural products focusing on original methods, innovation, protocols, and development of safe products.

Extraction solvents are principally volatile organic compounds obtained from non-renewable resources, mainly petroleum-based, and suspected to be harmful to both human health and the environment. One such voluminously used solvent is n -hexane, a product of controlled fractional distillation from petroleum mixtures. The primary advantage of such solvents are the ease of production, and the chemical properties it possesses that impart ideal functionalities, particularly in terms of solubility for a variety of products, including vegetable oils.

Nevertheless, hexane is produced from fossil sources and has recently been classified as CMR 3, which means that it is a suspected reprotoxic category 2 substance under the European Directives and Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals REACH regulations.

Due to the new emphasis on environmental and safety protections and the development of green chemistry, finding alternative solvents to petroleum-derived solvents has become a major concern for chemists [ 2 ]. This review articulates the current knowledge on alternative, green solvents used in laboratories and industries alike for the extraction of natural products focusing on original methods, innovation, protocols, and development of safe products.

It should be noted that it does not automatically imply complete disposal of all the hazards and issues linked with process implementation as new process modification involves automatically new risks. This review aims to be a complete perspective but will not systematically address the following topics, which were pertinently covered by recent or well-established reviews:.

Solvent selection guides offering clear directives and technical data, extensively presented by pharmaceutical companies: GSK [ 3 ], Pfizer [ 4 ], and Sanofi [ 5 ]. Evaluation tools of interaction between solvent and solute and their chemical properties such as Hansen [ 6 ] and Cosmo [ 7 ]. Reverse engineering selection for a new platform of solvents [ 8 ].

Life Cycle Analysis of petroleum versus green and alternative solvents [ 2 ]. One of the most famous solvent-free extractions dating back to antiquity is the extraction of olive oil by mechanical pressing.

Olive oils are extracted from the fruits of the olive tree using only physical actions, including crushing of olive fruits, and mixing and separation of the olive oil from the resulting paste. This technique has many advantages such as co-extraction of lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds, lipids with natural antioxidants that inhibit lipid autoxidation, but also a large number of volatile and non-volatile compounds responsible for aroma and taste.

In the 18th century, cold pressing was also used for extraction to obtain essential oils, or more precisely essences, present in the peels of citrus fruits. Cold pressing or expression is a technique that originated in Sicily and Calabria, before being used by all citrus-growing countries. In recent years, development of solvent-free techniques appeared to be of great interest in order to modernize conventional processes based nowadays on petroleum solvent extraction.

The positive features of solvent-free extraction are numerous: i reducing the costs and risks associated with the use of organic solvents; ii facilitating scale-up; iii enhancing safety by reducing the risk of overpressure and explosion. Several techniques such as instantaneous controlled pressure drop DICpulsed electric fields PEFand microwave irradiation MW are used to successfully perform solvent-free extractions of primary and secondary metabolites essential oils, aromas, edible oils, antioxidants, and other organic compounds.

These are innovative techniques that allow extractions to be carried out in a practical and efficient way by reducing the extraction time from a few hours to a few minutes because there is no distillation of the solvent, the limiting step of the processes.

They eliminate post-treatment of wastewater and normally consume only a fraction of the energy used in a conventional petroleum solvent extraction method. For example, solvent-free microwave extraction SFME uses fresh plant materials without addition of any solvent.

The principle of extraction is as follows: water plant cells are stimulated by internal heating produced under microwave irradiation, so immediate heating results in a subsequent pressure and temperature increase inside the plant cell, which distends the cell walls and leads to their eventual breakdown and the release of target cellular contents Figure 1 [ 9 ]. Fresh plants are introduced into the reactor without the addition of solvents.

The physical hydrodiffusion phenomenon allows the extracts to drop out of the MW reactor under the effect of gravity. See text for the corresponding solvent-free technique abbreviations.Approximately 95 percent of the current lubricant market share is comprised of conventional mineral-based oils. Most people know these mineral oils are derived from a crude stock, but how much do you really know about the refining process? The petroleum that flows from a well in the form of crude oil comes in many varieties and types, ranging from light-colored oils containing mostly small hydrocarbon molecular chains to black, nearly solid asphalt-like large hydrocarbon chains.

These crude oils are very complex mixtures containing a plethora of different compounds made of hydrogen and carbon. These compounds known as hydrocarbons can range in size from methane containing one carbon and four hydrogen atoms to massive structures with 60 or more carbon atoms.

This molecular size distribution can be used to our advantage. Most lubricating oils come from petroleum or crude oil. In order to get a lubricating oil from a crude oil, the crude oil must be sent through a refinery. The refinery takes from the crude oil a lot of molecules of various sizes and structures that can be used for different things.

For example, gasoline, diesel and kerosene are all derived from crude oil. Lubricating oil relates to hydrocarbon molecules of a particular size in the range from 26 to 40 carbons. Fairly large and heavy molecules are needed to work as lubricating oils.

The molecules that are used with gasoline and kerosene are smaller and have fewer carbons in the structure of the molecule. The refinery puts these molecules in little silos based on size and weight, and removes impurities, enabling each of the products from the crude oil to be utilized.

After the crude oil is desalted and sent through a furnace where it is heated and partially vaporized, it is sent to a fractionating column. This column operates slightly above atmospheric pressure and separates the hydrocarbons based on their boiling points, which are directly affected by their molecular size.

In the fractionating column, heat is applied and concentrated at the bottom. The hydrocarbons entering the column will be vaporized.

lubricant production processes: solvent extraction x hydro

As they travel upward in the column, they will cool until they condense back into a liquid form. The point at which this condensation occurs varies again based in part on the molecular size. By pulling the condensing liquid from the column at different heights, you can essentially separate the crude oil based on molecular size.

The smallest of the hydrocarbons 5 to 10 carbon atoms will rise to the very top of the column. They will be processed into products like gasoline. Condensing just before reaching the top, the compounds containing 11 to 13 carbon atoms will be processed into kerosene and jet fuel. Larger still at 14 to 25 carbon atoms in the molecular chain, diesel and gas oils are pulled out.

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